The Historical Daulatabad Fort In Maharashtra

Daultabad Fort is also known as Deogiri Fort. “Hill of the Gods,” originally known as Devagiri, is situated atop a conical hill in the state of Maharashtra in the Daulatabad village near Aurangabad. This medieval Indian architecture is known for the steep slopes of history woven into its mighty walls.

History and architecture

The fort reached its glory during the Tughlaq dynasty, when Sultan Muhammad bin Tughlaq shifted his capital reign from Delhi to Devagiri.The Historical Daulatabad Fort In Maharashtra

Daulatabad is marked with a series of gates. The Maha Darwaza, or Grand Entrance, is a creation of military construction with a convoluted, maze-like layout to avert invaders. The clever use of defensive features like hidden traps and spiked gates demonstrates the fort’s designers’ strategic intelligence.


The fort was the seat of the Yadava dynasty for over a century, until Ala-ud-din Khilji, the Sultan of Delhi, conquered it. Ramachandradeva, the Yadava king, was permitted to rule as a vassal from this Fort. However, the consequences of Ramachandradeva’s action orders given by the Delhi sultanate at the time led to the assault by Ala-ud-din Khilji’s army. 

Harpaladeva, battling for the sultanate, gained control after the Yadavas lost all of their authority. Daulatabad was renamed Deogiri by Muhammad bin Tuqhlaq. He forcibly moved all of Delhi’s residents from Delhi to Daulatabad because he believed Daulatabad was in a superior location to Delhi. However, due to a severe water shortage, the residents had to travel back to Delhi once more. This incident is well-known in Indian history as a quintessential act of stupidity.

Things to do:

  • Chini Mahal and Royal Residences

Within the Fort’s remains is Chini Mahal, a building with appealing Persian tiles that used to be the royal family’s pleasure palace. An exciting look into the lifestyles of the monarchs who once called Daulatabad home could be observed by seeing the ruins of the royal apartments inside the fort.

  • Explore the entrance.
  • Sarawati Bawdi

Step-well, a set of stone steps descends to the water’s surface built inside a well.

  • Chand Minar

Persian blue tiles adorn the four-storey exterior of the Chand Minar. The Minar is closed to outside visitors.

  • Sunset Panorama

When the sun sets, it offers a breathtaking spectacle. The views from the Fort’s panoramic position create a captivating scene as the sun sets. It is observed that the fort’s shape contrasts with the evening sky’s golden tones, creating a scenic moment in the viewer’s life.

Yale University Issues Formal Apology for Historical Ties to Slavery

Yale University has issued a formal apology for its historical connections with slavery, acknowledging its past involvement and expressing regret for the actions of its early leaders. In a statement released on February 16th, the Ivy League institution stated, “Today … we recognize our university’s historical role in and associations with slavery … and we apologize for the ways that Yale’s leaders, over the course of our early history, participated in slavery.”

This apology coincided with the publication of the book Yale and Slavery: A History, authored by Yale history professor David W Blight and the Yale and Slavery Research Project. The book delves into Yale’s dark past, shedding light on its entanglements with slavery.

One significant aspect discussed in the book is the connection between Elihu Yale (1649-1721), after whom the university is named, and India. Yale, who was born into a wealthy merchant family in Boston, Massachusetts, in 1649, spent a considerable portion of his life in India, primarily in Madras (now Chennai), where he amassed wealth through various endeavors, including the slave trade.

Elihu Yale’s journey from Massachusetts to Madras began when he joined the East India Company as a clerk in 1670. After a brief stint at the company’s London office, he was appointed as a ‘writer’ and sent to India. Arriving in Madras in 1672, Yale quickly ascended the ranks within the company, eventually serving as the governor-president of Madras from 1684 to 1685, and again from 1687 to 1692.

During Yale’s tenure, the East India Company conducted extensive trade in Madras, including commerce in spices, textiles, and unfortunately, human beings. Yale was implicated in overseeing sales and adjudications of enslaved individuals for the company. Historian Joseph Yannielli noted Yale’s involvement in the slave trade, stating that he and other company officials took advantage of labor surpluses, purchasing hundreds of slaves and shipping them to English colonies.

While the exact extent of Yale’s personal involvement in the slave trade remains unclear, it is evident that his wealth, amassed during his time in Madras, was intertwined with the purchase and sale of human beings. Although Yale primarily profited from trade in various commodities, including cloth, silks, and precious jewels, historian David W Blight emphasizes that this commerce was inseparable from the slave trade prevalent in the bustling port of the British Empire.

One poignant piece of evidence linking Yale to slavery is a painting housed at the Yale Center for British Art. The painting depicts Yale and three other men in opulent 18th-century attire, accompanied by a child, likely of African or Indian descent, wearing a silver collar indicating enslavement. Edward Town, assistant curator at the Yale Center for British Art, explained that such collars were not merely restraints but symbols of high status and enforced servitude.

Following his time in India, Yale returned to England in 1699, having amassed significant wealth through his various ventures, including illicit trade and allegations of embezzlement. Despite his controversial reputation, he became a prominent collector of art and artifacts and a generous benefactor of the Collegiate School in New Haven, Connecticut.

Established by Calvinists in 1701, the Collegiate School struggled financially until Yale’s intervention. His substantial donations, including books, a portrait of King George I, and other items, helped fund the construction of the college building. In recognition of Yale’s contributions, the Collegiate School renamed itself Yale College in 1718, cementing his legacy as one of the institution’s most significant benefactors.

Yale’s complex legacy, historian David W Blight notes that while Elihu Yale’s name adorns one of America’s oldest institutions of higher learning, it is essential to acknowledge the darker aspects of his past, including his involvement in the slave trade. Yale University’s apology serves as a step towards confronting and addressing this troubling history, ensuring a more comprehensive understanding of the university’s origins and evolution.


Lotus Temple  

The incredible architectural marvel of Lotus Temple located in New Delhi, is a Baha’I House of Worship. The teachings of the Baha’i faith hold that there is only one God, one religion, and one human race. The prominent lotus-like structure transcends all religious boundaries and welcomes humanity without any significant qualifications. The lotus temple is manifestation of Baha’iFaith’s principles, emphasizing unity, peace, and spiritual harmony.

History and Architecture

The lotus temple was designed by the Iranian architect Fariborz Sahba. The architecture is a merged design inspired from both Eastern and Western styles. The structure consisted of 27 free-standing marble-clad petals. The petals were arranged in clusters of three to form nine sides. The aesthetic appeal of the temple serves as a metaphor to the interconnectedness of all religions. The foundation for the temple was laid by Ruhiyyih Khanum and dedicated the temple on 24t December 1986. The Lotus Temple was built with marble that came in over 10,000 distinct sizes.

Things to do

  • Tourist Attraction

The Lotus Temple is now a popular tourist destination in Delhi, drawing millions of people each year. Part of what makes it so popular is its unique architecture and calm atmosphere.

  • Spiritual Retreat

The Lotus Temple provides a striking contrast to the chaotic urban environment outside its gates with its surrounding verdant gardens and reflecting pools. The serene atmosphere encourages introspection and contemplation, making it a haven for anyone looking for comfort in the middle of a busy metropolis. With its serene surroundings, the Lotus Temple turns into a haven for people looking for spiritual renewal and inner serenity.

  • Architectural Excellence

The Lotus Temple is renowned for its brilliant architecture and has received many honours and awards. The creative combination of artistic imagination and technical perfection is demonstrated by the inventive design and material selection.

Kumar Gallery presents 27 MASTERS

Kumar Gallery is pleased to present 27 MASTERS, a group show of master artists spanning from the Bengal school, J P Gangooly, Jamini Roy, Bireswar Sen; to Progressives M F Husain, F N Souza, S H Raza, Krishen Khanna, K H Ara, Ram Kumar, Akbar Padamsee; to tantric abstractionists G R Santosh, Biren De, Sohan Qadri; to important modernists K S Kulkarni, N S Bendre, A Ramachandran, J Swaminathan, B Prabha, Satish Gujral, Sakti Burman, George Keyt, A P Santhanaraj, Badri Narayan, Jatin Das; to eminent sculptors Amar Nath Sehgal, Prodosh Das Gupta, Sankho Chaudhuri, and Dhanraj Bhagat.

Picture : TheUNN

Works in the exhibition span themes relevant to 2023. Ramachandran’s Visions of War, with its reflections on propaganda, ideology, religion, history, and the specter of nuclear war has never since World War II been more relevant on account of the Ukraine War. The exhibition invites viewers to further reflect upon themes of the vitality of life as expressed through sexuality in art, the historical socioeconomic fabric of India, and the integration of philosophy into modern life.

Exhibition opens online on February 5th 5PM IST. Select works will be on exhibit at Kumar Gallery Hotel Hyatt Regency & Kumar Gallery Sainik Farms (By Appointment)

Mr. Virendra Kumar Jain of Kumar Gallery is the pioneer in promoting contemporary Indian art in our country as well as abroad. Most of the top ranking artists of today owe their beginnings to him. It was due to relentless efforts Kumar made in creating awareness of modern vocabulary of the mode of painting that has made it possible for most of us to find a niche in the history of world art. What our society has gained through such developments is too obvious to mention. – Satish Gujral

This essay pays tribute to a champion and great supporter of Modern Indian Art, Shri Virendra Kumar, founder of Kumar Gallery. With the dizzying ascent and soaring value of the market for Modern Indian Art in recent years, it is all too easy for connoisseurs to defer to price as a proxy for aesthetic value. Yet Modern was once Contemporary, and there was a time when the evolution of style was the result of a hard-won struggle against the prevailing commercial trends. It was precisely at those crossroads in the history of India that Virendra acted as the principal tastemaker and visionary patron for serious, avant-garde artistic expression.

Picture : TheUNN

Virendra Kumar was born on 26 January 1933 to an illustrious and philanthropic Jain family. For generations the family had provided patronage to musicians, sculptors, and painters, architects and had commissioned numerous temples. Most notable amongst direct patrilineal ancestors of the family were Raja Harsukh Rai (1740 – 1807) and his great grandfather Deep Chand Sah, who respectively built the Naya Mandir and Lal Mandir in Delhi, and the latter of whom was the treasurer for the Mughal Emperor Shah Jahan. Oral histories of the family trace the lineage back further to influential Jain traders during the Tomara dynasty (8th – 12th centuries), principally located in the area where the Qutb Minar is now located.

In many ways, known and unknown, the shape of what we now understand as Modern Indian Art was shaped by the efforts of Virendra Kumar and his brothers at Kumar Gallery. Their contributions as promoters and tastemakers came precisely at the hour of need for the first generation of contemporary artists in independent India’s.

Virendra’s comprehensive patronage and unwavering belief that Indian artists could compete with their Western contemporaries was the quintessential catalyst that manifested the latent potential of India’s nascent artistic ecosystem. In recognition of the role that Virendra Kumar played, and in appreciation of his sincerity and resolve, M.F. Husain, termed him, ‘The Kahnweiller of Indian Contemporary Art.’ For more details, please visit: