Artificial intelligence (AI) exhibits potential as a valuable aid in mental health services, educational counseling, and career guidance. However, the American Counseling Association (ACA), the primary body representing counseling professionals, emphasizes the importance of not substituting AI for human counselors.
The ACA’s AI Working Group has released guidelines to assist counselors and their clients in comprehending the benefits and limitations of integrating chatbots, robotics, and other emerging AI tools into mental health services. Russell Fulmer, PhD, LPC, chair of the working group and professor at Husson University, Bangor, Maine, stresses the necessity for clients to grasp the technical limitations, unresolved biases, and security risks associated with AI before incorporating it into counseling.
“While AI may present promising advantages, its assertions can occasionally be overly ambitious, unsupported by evidence, or even incorrect and potentially harmful,” the panel emphasizes in its recommendations.
AI technologies are engineered to replicate human-like reasoning, decision-making, and language comprehension. Counselors currently utilize them to streamline administrative tasks, such as progress reports for clients, according to Olivia Uwamahoro Williams, PhD, NCC, LPC, a clinical assistant professor at the College of William & Mary and an ACA working group member. Some counselors are encouraging clients to utilize AI chatbots to aid in understanding and managing their thoughts and emotions between therapy sessions, Fulmer notes.
However, as highlighted by the ACA panel, these algorithms inherit the fallibilities and biases of their human creators. There’s a risk that AI tools may rely on data that overlooks specific communities, particularly marginalized groups, potentially resulting in culturally insensitive care. Additionally, there’s a possibility of disseminating false claims or inaccurate information. Despite their potential as diagnostic aids, AI tools cannot replicate the professional judgment and expertise necessary to accurately assess an individual’s mental health requirements.
“Unlike human counselors, AI lacks the ability to comprehensively consider a client’s intricate personal history, cultural background, and diverse symptoms and factors,” the guidelines underscore. “Hence, while AI can be a supportive tool, it should not supplant the professional judgment of professional counselors. It is advisable to utilize AI as a supplement to, rather than a substitute for, the expertise provided by professional counselors.”
The ACA panel recommends that clients take the following into consideration:
- Ensure your provider educates you on what AI can and cannot provide so you can make informed decisions regarding its use in your counseling.
- To safeguard confidentiality, confirm that the AI tools you utilize comply with federal and state privacy laws and regulations.
- Discuss with your counselor strategies to mitigate the risks of AI tools providing misinformation or factual errors that could jeopardize your well-being.
- Refrain from utilizing AI for crisis response; instead, seek assistance from crisis hotlines, emergency services, and other qualified professionals.
Providers are urged by the working group to develop a comprehensive understanding of AI technologies, their applications in counseling services, and their implications for confidentiality and privacy. Fulmer stresses the necessity for counselors to undergo thorough and ongoing training in the evolving applications of AI.
“We have an ethical obligation to ensure our competence in anything we utilize,” he asserts. “Thus, one of our recommendations is to enhance our understanding of AI.”
The panel also calls upon technology developers to involve clients and counselors in the design of pertinent AI tools. This inclusion of users will ensure that AI tools are client-centered and address practical needs.
ACA assumes a leadership role in ensuring the responsible use of AI in mental health services, according to Shawn Boynes, FASAE, CAE, the organization’s chief executive officer.
“The integration of AI and its impact on mental health is expanding rapidly in various ways that we are still exploring,” Boynes remarks. “As one of numerous mental health organizations dedicated to well-being, we aim to lead by offering solutions to help address future concerns.”