A recent investigation carried out in Romania has unveiled that individuals who are subjected to phubbing—being ignored in favor of a mobile phone—tend to experience heightened loneliness and psychological distress. This study, published in BMC Psychology, suggests that loneliness might play a partial role in mediating the connection between perceived phubbing, life satisfaction, and psychological distress.
The ubiquity of mobile devices has seen an explosive growth over the past few decades, with estimates in 2021 indicating a staggering 5.3 billion smartphone users worldwide. While this technological advancement has undeniably facilitated communication and interaction, it has also introduced new challenges in social dynamics, one of which is phubbing.
Phubbing, a contraction of “phone snubbing,” refers to the phenomenon where individuals prioritize their smartphones over face-to-face interactions with others. Those engaging in phubbing neglect the company of others in favor of their mobile devices, leading the person on the receiving end, termed the “phubbee,” to feel ignored or unimportant. This behavior can result in feelings of isolation, frustration, reduced social connection, and diminished life satisfaction for those affected.
Alexandra Maftei and Cornelia Măirean, the authors of the study, aimed to explore the connections between phubbing experiences, loneliness, life satisfaction, and psychological distress in adult phubbees. They hypothesized that higher levels of perceived phubbing would be linked to increased psychological distress and lower life satisfaction. Additionally, they believed that phubbing could induce feelings of loneliness, which, in turn, might lead to higher psychological distress and lower life satisfaction.
The study involved 720 Romanian adults, ranging from 18 to 77 years old, with an average age of 24 years. The majority of participants (74%) were female, and 44% were in a romantic relationship, 36% were single, and 18% were married.
Participants underwent assessments for psychological distress (using the Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale), life satisfaction (using the Satisfaction with Life Scale), perceived phubbing (using the Generic Scale of Being Phubbed), loneliness (using the revised UCLA Loneliness Scale), and time spent on social media (assessed with a single item). Results confirmed that higher perceived exposure to phubbing was associated with increased levels of psychological distress and loneliness, although no direct correlation was found between phubbing and life satisfaction.
The researchers developed and tested a statistical model proposing that loneliness acts as a mediator between perceived phubbing and life satisfaction, as well as between perceived phubbing and psychological distress. The model testing revealed a slight positive direct effect of phubbing on life satisfaction and a negative indirect effect through loneliness. This suggests that while phubbing may slightly increase life satisfaction, it more significantly increases loneliness, subsequently decreasing life satisfaction.
The model, when extended to include psychological distress, indicated that phubbing might impact psychological distress both directly and indirectly, through increasing loneliness. The study authors concluded by highlighting the substantial role of perceived phubbing in discussions about psychological distress and life satisfaction. They emphasized the need for further exploration into the (mis)use of digital devices, such as smartphones, within interpersonal relationships and the importance of understanding the outcomes of such behaviors to shape effective interventions.
While this study provides valuable insights into the phenomenon of phubbing, it is crucial to acknowledge its limitations. The study design does not permit drawing cause-and-effect conclusions. It is plausible that phubbing triggers loneliness, but it is equally plausible that lonely individuals are more likely to experience phubbing or pay more attention to phubbing behaviors, consequently reporting greater perceived phubbing. Additionally, the predominantly young age of study participants raises questions about the generalizability of results to populations with a larger proportion of older individuals.