Holy See’s Global Diplomatic Network Flourishes: Establishes New Ties, Ratifies Agreements, and Navigates a Robust International Landscape

In the context of the customary audience extended by the Pope to the Diplomatic Corps accredited to the Holy See, the Secretary of State of the Vatican has disseminated updated information regarding the countries maintaining diplomatic ties with the Holy See.

As of the commencement of the year 2024, the Holy See boasts diplomatic relations with 184 countries. This tally includes not only individual nations but also encompasses the European Union and the Sovereign Military Order of Malta. The collective presence of embassies headquartered in Rome, inclusive of those representing the European Union and the Sovereign Military Order of Malta, amounts to a total of 91. Additionally, Rome serves as the base for the offices of significant international entities such as the League of Arab States, the International Organization for Migration, and the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees.

In a significant diplomatic development during the course of 2023, the Holy See officially established full-fledged diplomatic relations with the Sultanate of Oman on February 23. Subsequently, on July 19, the “Supplementary Agreement to the Agreement between the Holy See and the Republic of Kazakhstan on Mutual Relations of September 24, 1998,” pertaining to the issuance of visas and residence permits to ecclesiastical and religious personnel from abroad, was ratified. This agreement, initially signed on September 14, 2022, underscores the evolving nature of the Holy See’s diplomatic engagements. Furthermore, on July 27, the Holy See concluded the “Agreement on the Status of the Pontifical Representative Resident and the Office of the Pontifical Representative Resident in Vietnam” with Vietnam. The culmination of this agreement was marked by the subsequent appointment of a Pontifical Representative Resident on December 23.

As of the conclusion of 2023, the United Nations officially recognizes a total of 195 countries.In light of this, it is noteworthy that the Holy See maintains diplomatic relations with 184 countries, leaving 11 nations with which it does not have established diplomatic ties. This positioning underscores the Holy See’s standing as one of the nations boasting one of the most extensive networks of diplomatic relations globally. The historical trajectory of the Holy See’s diplomatic engagements is marked by Spain being the first country ever with which the Holy See established diplomatic relations, while the Sultanate of Oman represents the latest addition to this distinguished list.

It is important to underscore the significance of the Holy See’s diplomatic reach, encompassing a broad spectrum of nations and international entities. The European Union and the Sovereign Military Order of Malta are emblematic of the diverse range of entities with which the Holy See cultivates diplomatic ties. Additionally, the concentration of embassies in Rome, including those representing the European Union and the Sovereign Military Order of Malta, highlights the city’s pivotal role as a hub for diplomatic activities.

The diplomatic developments of 2023, particularly the establishment of diplomatic relations with the Sultanate of Oman, exemplify the Holy See’s ongoing commitment to fostering international dialogue and cooperation. The ratification of the “Supplementary Agreement” with the Republic of Kazakhstan reflects the Holy See’s proactive approach in addressing specific aspects of diplomatic relations. Similarly, the conclusion of the “Agreement on the Status of the Pontifical Representative Resident and the Office of the Pontifical Representative Resident in Vietnam” signifies the Holy See’s concerted efforts to formalize and structure its diplomatic engagements with individual nations.

The Holy See’s expansive diplomatic network is particularly noteworthy in the context of the United Nations’ recognition of 195 countries. With diplomatic relations established with 184 nations, the Holy See has positioned itself as a key player in international diplomacy. The absence of diplomatic ties with only 11 countries further underscores the comprehensiveness of the Holy See’s diplomatic outreach.

The historical perspective of the Holy See’s diplomatic relations adds depth to its contemporary engagements. Spain holds a special place in the Holy See’s diplomatic history as the first nation with which it established diplomatic relations. This historical connection serves as a testament to the enduring nature of diplomatic ties between the Holy See and individual countries. The recent addition of the Sultanate of Oman to the list of nations with diplomatic relations further underscores the Holy See’s commitment to expanding its global diplomatic footprint.


Vatican message to Hindus emphasizes hope in family life

The Pontifical Council for Interreligious Dialogue in Rome has issued its annual message to Hindus for Diwali, this time stressing family life. The message, entitled “Christians and Hindus: promoting hope among families,” said it is “especially important” that “parents, together with the wider community, instil in their children a sense of hope by guiding them towards a better future and the pursuit of the good, even in the face of adversity.”

“Providing a formation and education in hope is thus a task of paramount importance for families, as it reflects the divine nature of mercy which embraces the disheartened and gives them purpose,” it said added.

In a message titled, “Christians and Hindus: Promoting hope among families,” the statement offered best wishes as India celebrated Deepavali on October 30th, 2016. “May your celebrations around the world deepen your familial bonds, and bring joy and peace to your homes and communities. The health of society depends on our familial bonds and yet we know that today the very notion of family is being undermined by a climate that relativizes its essential significance and value. With this abiding respect for the family, and keenly aware of the global challenges daily confronting us, we wish to offer a reflection on how we, Christians and Hindus together, can promote hope in families, thus making our society ever more humane.”